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TRAFFIC and ZSL Request for Proposals:




  1. Organization Background

TRAFFIC is a leading non-governmental organisation working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Our team of staff around the world carry out research, investigations and analysis to compile the evidence we use to catalyse action by governments, businesses and individuals, in collaboration with a wide range of partners, to help ensure that wildlife trade is not a threat to the conservation of nature. Unsustainable consumer demand for wildlife products is a leading cause for the threats facing many species across the world. TRAFFIC has been at the forefront of innovation within the field of Social and Behavioural Change Communications (SBCC), running various projects with relevant stakeholders targeting specific consumers of a variety of threatened wildlife. TRAFFIC uses the SBCC approach that includes market and consumer research to guide campaign design.

The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) is an international conservation charity working to create a world where wildlife thrives. From investigating the health threats facing animals to helping people and wildlife live alongside each other, ZSL is committed to bringing wildlife back from the brink of extinction through science, field conservation around the world, and engaging millions of people through ZSL’s two Zoos, ZSL London and ZSL Whipsnade Zoos. ZSL’s global Pangolin Programme has pioneered research, law enforcement capacity building, community engagement, and policy advocacy. ZSL also hosts the IUCN SSC Pangolin Specialist Group. Since 2015, ZSL Thailand’s Pangolin Project, with DNP, has been working to improve the understanding and protection of pangolins at the source through monitoring, strengthening enforcement, and engaging local communities as pangolin protectors.

  1. Project Background

    1. Overview

As part of the GEF funded “Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade, focusing on Ivory, Rhino Horn, Tiger and Pangolins in Thailand” project, TRAFFIC has been assigned to carry out interventions to reduce consumer demand for illegal wildlife products by developing and implementing targeted SBCC campaigns to reach key consumer segments through the most relevant channels. To ensure that campaigns will engage and resonate with the target groups, insights are required to understand the consumers and their underlying motivations for consuming illegal wildlife products.

As part of the “Pangolin Demand Reduction Project”, ZSL seeks to assess consumer demand and motivations for pangolins and pangolin products in Thailand. Thailand is an established source and transit country for pangolin trafficking. Historically, Thailand was also known as a destination and consumer country of pangolins and pangolin products. ZSL is interested in understanding more about factors and motivations behind the illegal trade in, and demand for wild meat, and especially pangolins. The goal of the project is to reduce demand to lead to a reduction in pangolin poaching and illegal trade. Understanding motivations for, as well as against (zoonotic disease and legality), consumption of wild meat products (including pangolins) will provide critical insight to inform interventions in the next phase of the project.


  1. Key Findings of Situation Analysis

  • Illegal wildlife products are consumed for one of the following reasons.

    • Spiritual

    • Aesthetic

    • Pets

    • Nutritional

    • Medicinal

  • Ivory is the most consumed wildlife product in Thailand. There is evidence that tiger parts and products are used/consumed as well. No literature is available pointing to consumer demand in Thailand for rhino horn or pangolin. Thailand serves as a transit point for these two species on their way to other countries.

  • Literature shows that amulets and other items made from ivory and tiger bones are bought by people for spiritual reasons. Ivory products can be found in ivory markets, jewellery stores, amulet markets and within the vicinity of temples, while tiger products are harder to source and sold with discretion near temples and in amulet markets.

  • High volume of live small mammals (Sunda slow loris, otters, white-handed gibbon), birds (red-whiskered bulbul) and reptiles (Burmese and Indian star tortoise) have been found on sale both on Facebook and in physical markets like the Chatuchak market.

  • Accessories and jewellery made from ivory and hornbill cask have been found on sale online and in physical markets too.

  • There is also evidence that wild meat is being consumed and wildlife parts are being used as ingredients in traditional medicine. However, very little information is available.

  • Consumer data for ivory products revealed that they are mainly sported as accessories or jewellery by financially affluent women around the age of 40 for spiritual reasons, as well as to boost their social status. Larger pieces of ivory like tusks are rare and used to symbolize wealth and success by successful businesspeople.

  • Consumer data for tiger products revealed that they are mainly sported as amulets by financially affluent me around the age of 40 who believe that the spirit in tiger bones can ward of bad spirits and omen. Larger pieces like tiger head, skins, etc. are extremely rare and are usually family heirlooms.

  • Those surveyed were not aware of the illegal killing of elephants for ivory

(Note: Domestic sale of ivory is not illegal if the ivory comes from Thai domestic elephants, but ivory from African elephants are illegal. The lack of a domestic ban presents an opportunity for illegal ivory from Africa to be smuggled into and enter the domestic Thai market).


  1. Research Gaps identified in the Situation Analysis

While extensive research has been done around the ivory and tiger parts that are mostly used for spiritual or aesthetic purposes, very little is known about people who consume wild meat. Therefore, additional formative research is needed to probe this user group and fill the following research gaps:

  1. profiles (gender, age, education, financial status, etc.),

  2. purchase history & tendency,

  3. motivations to consume wild meat (certain traditions/beliefs seek out exotic tastes, only source of meat, etc.),

  4. purchase channels & sources of information,

  5. concerns and deterrents, including linkages to zoonotic diseases and legality of consumption.

  1. Scope of Work

In order to successfully carry out the SBCC campaign, formative research is needed to probe underlying drivers for people who consume wild meat and to identify specific consumer segments, develop messages and materials that will resonate and persuade, select appropriate channels and “messengers”, and plan specific interventions. While participatory, qualitative methods are expected, offerors may also propose alternative or complementary methodologies, such as direct observations, quantitative data analysis or combinations of methods as they see fit. The outcomes of the formative research will feed directly into SBCC programming and subsequent activities.


The offeror shall outline a proposed research design, sampling strategy, data collection modality, data collection methods, data management, data analysis, and reporting, that will address the following primary research questions and provide an extensive understanding of wild meat consumption and consumers, including:

  • What are the socio-demographic, psychographic characteristics of people who consume wild meat? Can they be further divided into sub-segments and based on what criteria?

  • What socio-ecological factors are driving demand for these product groups?

  • Who are the Influencers of these consumers groups?

  • Are they aware of the laws associated with buying, owning and using such products?


Sub-questions include:

  • Where do the different consumer groups live? Where do they buy their products from? Where do they get information on where to buy the from?

  • What are the reasons for consuming wild meat? Is there any specific meat of choice?

  • Are there any alternatives to these products (domesticated animals, farmed meat, etc.)?

  • Do we need to target consumers according to species or by other demographic characteristics, or by type of motivation? If yes, why and how? If no, why not?

  • Who/what are their influencers, particularly those who may dissuade or de-incentivize use? Who/what will make them change their consumption and purchase patterns i.e., stop consuming wildlife? Do we need to propose alternatives to these products?

  • What types of tactics can be used within the cultural context of the consumer segments? Considering that “loss of face” is part of the culture, will a “shaming” strategy work? Considering the COVID19 pandemic, will information on zoonotic disease dissuade consumers?

  • What are the most effective channels to reach them? How can TRAFFIC gain access to them and/or their leaders and influencers?

  1. Outputs

It is expected that deliverables will be completed with TRAFFIC approval obtained for each deliverable. All deliverables shall be submitted in English language, unless otherwise specified. The due dates for each deliverable will be established after contract award, not exceeding award period of performance. The offeror will be responsible for preparing and submitting the following deliverables:


  1. Preparation of Research Plan, including research methodology, sample strategy, data collection methods, data management plan and data analysis plan.

  2. Data Collection Plan, including survey agenda, data collection plan and timeline.

  3. Data Collection Forms (in English and Thai), including questionnaires, informed consent forms, interview and focus group guides.

  4. Preliminary findings based on initial data analysis, including summary data tables and key points for review.

  5. Submission of Final Report, including complete data sets in an open and shareable format, and any other supporting documents relevant to the research.

  6. Presentation of key findings of the research to TRAFFIC, implementing partners and other audience.


The Research Organization is also expected to be available for regular calls, meetings and other form of communication with TRAFFIC to provide update on the ongoing tasks and any preliminary findings.

  1. Budget

The total budget to cover this formative research (including data collection and analysis, and preparation of the report) is up to and not exceeding USD 50,000. The fee payable by TRAFFIC is inclusive of any sales taxes that may be chargeable by the consultant. Any liability for sales taxes payable outside of the UK rests with the consultant.


Offerors are required to provide a detailed breakdown of the costs associated with conducting the research and to fill out the budget summary template in annex 1.

  1. Draft Timeline

November Week 4: TRAFFIC to send RFP to potential research agencies

December Week 3: Deadline for research agencies to submit research proposal

December Week 4: TRAFFIC to evaluate proposals and contact research agencies

January Week 2: TRAFFIC to issue a contract to selected research agency

January Week 4: TRAFFIC and research agency finalize research plan

February Week 1: Research agency begin conducting the research

March Week 2: Research agency to submit draft report

March Week 4: Research agency to submit final report

  1. Next Step

As part of responding to this RFP, offerors are required to develop and submit a cost proposal and technical proposal outlining the solution(s) and addressing how it is intended to implement formative research to probe behavioural determinants (drivers and barriers) and other factors influencing consumption of wild meat among specific consumer segments in Thailand.

Please prepare a short proposal which includes:

  • Your proposed approach to the development of these deliverables

  • Your suitability for the work including an example of relevant past work

  • Proposed budget (using the budget summary template)

  • Proposed timeline

And send by 18 December 2020 via email to
Katie Mabbutt
Project Support Officer

For more information on ZSL visit

For more information on TRAFFIC visit

TRAFFIC International is a UK Registered Charity No. 1076722, Registered Limited Company No. 3785518.

Annex I

Budget summary template

Download Budget summary template


Budget Item


No. of units

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